In recent years, 3D printing has developed rapidly, and its annual growth rate is about 30%. Compared with the growth of technology and business, the media's attention has increased significantly, and even overheated. But in fact, 3D printing is not an artifact, there are still many things to be improved; At the same time, 3D printing is not a bubble. It should arouse the attention of all sectors.
In traditional manufacturing (reduced material manufacturing), the more complex the workpiece structure is, the higher the unit manufacturing cost is. No matter whether the workpiece structure is complex or not, the unit manufacturing cost of 3D printing is the same. Its target market is just the market that needs complex workpiece structure, and the more complex it is, the more competitive it is. When the cost of 3D printing is reduced, its target market will be further expanded. Low cost small batch production, complex parts processing, component function improvement, personalized customized products, green production, new supply chain and retail mode become the driving force of 3D printing in industrial application.
From the point of view of manufacturing patents, most of the global additive manufacturing patents are focused on equipment, printing process and application, and there is a lack of design and manufacturing of molding materials, which has become one of the bottlenecks hindering the further development of additive manufacturing technology. At the same time, 3D printing has investment gap in technology development and application, which needs more support from the government; As the main body to promote the development and innovation of additive manufacturing, enterprises should also pay more attention to application.
3D printing has a broad application prospect in automobile manufacturing. According to statistics, 97 million passenger cars are expected to be sold globally in 2017, including 25 million in China; The domestic auto parts market has reached trillion yuan. In 2014, automobiles accounted for 16.1% of global 3D printing applications; In 2019, the market size of 3D printing in the automotive industry is expected to reach about US $1.1 billion. The advantages of 3D printing, such as shortening R & D cycle, reducing R & D cost, accelerating product market entry time, lightweight, low carbon, flat supply chain, fast and personalized service, make its application throughout the whole life cycle of automobile manufacturing concept, R & D, manufacturing and maintenance.
Concept design - 3D printing technology is widely used in the design of concept vehicles, and will become an important technology to support the future development of customized and high-performance vehicle design and manufacturing.
R & D - the rapid prototyping Department of General Motors in the United States uses SLS and sla3d printing technology for product development, and has printed more than 20000 verification models of parts;
Direct manufacturing of functional parts - 3D printing directly manufactures metal energy absorbing devices with complex lattice structure, which can reduce the impact force caused by violent collision and improve the safety performance; 3D printing can directly manufacture complex structures, increase the contact surface area, and improve the heat dissipation performance of automobile related parts. For example, the radar antenna made by Beijing Longyuan can reach the complexity of 16000 hexagonal conical holes, and the cost performance is very high.
Overall, the current 3D printing automotive applications mainly include exterior decoration, oil pressure system, manufacturing process, exhaust system and other external applications. The future development will tend to: lightweight design and manufacturing, such as the design and manufacturing of lattice, hollow and other complex structures, integrated design and manufacturing of parts, development and application of new carbon fiber reinforced materials and light alloy materials, etc; Direct molding of high-performance parts such as automobile engine, power transmission system and wheels; Breaking the traditional automobile design concept of vehicle design and manufacturing; 3D printing, cloud printing service for smart car and automotive aftermarket
At the same time, 3D printing automotive applications are also facing the high cost of mass production, the breakthrough of key core technology of direct manufacturing of large-scale and high-performance parts, how to form large-scale access and application under the existing mature industry standard system, and business model and other challenges.
The combination of ICT technology and manufacturing industry produces intelligent manufacturing. As one of the core technologies of intelligent manufacturing, 3D printing is an effective supplementary tool, not a substitute tool. Besides, the correct tools should be used correctly, and not to dig the earth with iPad, but also blame it as a shovel. If the rules, requirements and expectations are not changed, 3D printing has many defects compared with traditional manufacturing, so it can not be used to replace the traditional mature manufacturing methods. If we change the rules, requirements and goals, and take 3D printing as another manufacturing method, incremental development, it will bring a new era of design and manufacturing. Facing the future, we apply 3D printing thinking to design and manufacture products, and embrace intelligent manufacturing.
What details should CNC prototype model manufacturers pay attention to?
1. Conventional products are usually made of ABS material, which is easy to process and beautiful in post-processing.
2. High temperature resistant products, optional materials
(1) Epoxy resin;
(3) Black PC;
(4) PA (nylon).
In addition to the black PC, the other three kinds of handboards made of these four materials can not be bonded and need to be processed as a whole.
3. Wear resistant products: POM or PA can be selected. These two kinds of materials can not be bonded, need to be processed as a whole.
4. For high toughness products, PA or PP can be selected. These two kinds of materials can not be bonded, need to be processed as a whole.
5. Transparent products can be made of PMMA (acrylic), transparent ABS, transparent PC and other materials. The handboards made of these materials are highly transparent through polishing, achieving the same effect as real products.
6. The surface treatment of product hand plate is generally divided into oil spraying, electroplating, frosting, silk screen printing, pad printing and other surface effects. Hand spray is divided into smooth surface, dumb surface, sand surface, transparent color, translucent color, fluorescent color, rubber oil and other effects.
The quality of prototype and stamping and its influencing factors
What is quality? Quality is divided into process quality and production quality. Process quality refers to the process plan that meets the quality requirements of qualified products; Production quality refers to the production capacity with quality in the production process. Because most of the domestic manufacturing enterprises are small and medium-sized enterprises, and a considerable part of them are still in the traditional workshop type production management stage, often ignoring the quality of the hand board, resulting in a long development cycle and high manufacturing cost, which seriously restricts the pace of development of enterprises.
First let's take a look at the main factors that affect the quality of handboard and stamping, which are: the use of handboard materials; The strength requirements of hand board structure; Quality of stamping material performance; The fluctuation characteristics of material thickness; The change range of materials; The resistance of the tensile bar is small; The variation range of blank holder force; Selection of lubricants.
Comprehensively weigh the factors that affect the quality of the hand board. It is worth noting that in the stamping process, because each stamping sheet has its own chemical composition, mechanical properties and characteristic values closely related to stamping properties, the instability of stamping material properties, the fluctuation of stamping material thickness and the change of stamping material not only directly affect the accuracy and quality of stamping processing, It may also cause damage to the hand board.
Take drawbead as an example, it plays a very important role in stamping. In the process of stretch forming, the forming of products needs to have a certain size of tensile force which is properly distributed along the fixed periphery. The tensile force comes from the force of stamping equipment, the deformation resistance of edge part materials, and the flow resistance on the blank holder surface. If the flow resistance only depends on the blank holder force, the friction between the hand plate and the material is not enough. For this reason, it is necessary to set tensile bars on the blank holder to increase the feed resistance, so as to make the material produce greater plastic deformation, so as to meet the requirements of plastic deformation and plastic flow. At the same time, by changing the size and distribution of the drawbead resistance, and controlling the material flow speed and feeding amount to the hand plate, the effective adjustment of the tensile force and its distribution in each deformation area of the drawing part can be realized, so as to prevent the product from cracking, wrinkling, deformation and other quality problems. It can be seen from the above that in the process of making the stamping process and the design of the hand plate, the tensile resistance must be taken into account. According to the variation range of the blank holder force, the draw bar should be arranged and the form of the draw bar should be determined, so that each deformation area can complete the forming according to the required deformation mode and degree.